Join Isuzu Watch

Isuzu trucks to replace GM?

This is an invitation to join the IsuzuWatch@yahoogroups.com email group. The
premise behind this email group is that Isuzu is a sleeper organization. Some
may remember, Isuzu was partially owned by GM and got its US start building the
Chevrolet Luv. Later, Isuzu set up its own dealer network in the US.

GM then used Isuzu's diesel engine expertise and set up the DuraMax joint
venture in Ohio. This plant provides engines for GM pickups and medium duty
trucks. Isuzu's were made in the GM plant in Jamesville, Wisconsin. Some GM
trucks being sold were actually Isuzus.

In 2007, GM sold its shares in Isuzu. Toyota then bought around a 16% share of
Isuzu. Toyota decreed that Isuzu would stop selling passenger vehicles in the US
and would sell trucks. Around the same time Toyota was behind the building of a
Hino plant in West Virginia. This is the Toyota foray into larger medium duty

GM has announced that they are stopping production of their Chevrolet and GMC
medium duty trucks at the end of July 2009. This leaves 450 plus dealers without
a product to sell. Those dealers are familiar with the GM/Isuzu jointly built
products. Isuzu may sign them up. Toyota has a lot of excess plant space in the
US. They may start to manufacture Isuzu trucks in a Toyota or NUMMI plant.

It will be interesting to see how this plays out. Join us to see.

Jim Moderator


metal hemming machine

When I worked at Twinsburg Stamping hemming was done in a hemming press. As the press closed, tooling cammed and rotated the hem.

Compact flexible metal hemming machine introduced: News from DV Automation


Emailing: Spot-Welding

TThis is an email about spot welding:

Shortcut to: http://www.rimrockautomation.com/Applications/Spot-Welding.asp

Emailing: content

The message is ready to be sent with the following file or link attachments:

Shortcut to: http://www.automotiveworld.com/WAM/content.asp?contentid=61163

Note: To protect against computer viruses, e-mail programs may prevent
sending or receiving certain types of file attachments. Check your e-mail
security settings to determine how attachments are handled.


Fanuc Robots

Fanuc Robotics introduces new line: Fanuc Robotics America, Inc., has introduced its new LR Mate 200iC robot, the company's next generation mini-robot, which Fanuc says offers maximum performance in a light, efficient, accurate and nimble package. The robot features built-in vision. It will be demonstrated this week at the Automation Technology Expo at the Anaheim Convention Center in Anaheim, Calif. Fanuc says the new robot is significantly lighter and more compact than its predecessor. It's intended for high-speed part handling, machine tending, assembly and material removal. More at www.fanucrobotics.com.


Jim Peck



advancedmetalformingprocesses@yahoogroups.com  Metal Forming Group

http://forums.sme.org/forumdisplay.php?f=79  SME Sheet Metal Stamping Forum

http://autobodymfg.blogspot.com/ Jim Peck blog re automobile sheet metal forming

http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/StampConfidently-withRMS/ Stamping Group


Click to join StampConfidently-withRMS



Advanced Materials Processing Laboratory

This looks like a nice research press. One interesting item for me is that it has been upgraded control wise. I used to upgrade hydraulic presses.


Aston Martin reverse engineering

The CNC WEST December 2006/January 2007 issue contains a picture of a man using a Perceptron 3D laser scanning attachment on the articulating arm of a Romer Infinite Portable CMM. He is taking measurements to reverse engineer an Aston-Martin. The company defines one of their businesses as a reverse engineering job shop. This company appears to mostly employ skilled workers. The article is called Portable QC.

Jim Peck
advancedmetalformingprocesses@yahoogroups.com Metal Forming Group
http://forums.sme.org/forumdisplay.php?f=79 SME Sheet Metal Stamping Forum
http://autobodymfg.blogspot.com/ Jim Peck blog re automobile sheet metal forming
http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/StampConfidently-withRMS/ Stamping Group

Click to join StampConfidently-withRMS


AWS announces new resistance welding standards - Automation & Control News for December 2006 on Automation.com

AWS announces new resistance welding standards - Automation & Control News for December 2006 on Automation.com

AWS announces new resistance welding standards - Automation & Control News for December 2006 on Automation.com

AWS announces new resistance welding standards - Automation & Control News for December 2006 on Automation.com



Geodelta - Phast - Closer Look

scanning a vehicle door using Phast

The Future is Forming

this is a blog about steel with some on forming


Geodelta - Phast

Geodelta - Phast

Phast system for CGA

Circle grid strain analysis in the ULSAC program was performed to determine real strains or material thinning and material thickening of the three-dimensional stamped parts. Those measured strain and material thinning values were compared with the forming simulation results.

Corus NL Research & Development performed the circle grid strain analysis on the stamped parts. They are equipped with the latest system for strain measurement, called Phast, which is jointly developed by Geodelta and Corus NL Research & Development.

Phast is a vision-based measurement system that determines surface strains on formed sheet metal. The measurement errors are between ±0.5% (absolutely).

The first step was to apply a point circle grid pattern on the flat steel sheet by electro-chemical etching prior to the stamping process.

Ultralight Steel

The Ultralight Steel Auto Closure (ULSAC) Program is a study undertaken by the global steel producers to demonstrate the effective use of steel in producing lightweight, structurally sound steel automotive closures that are manufacturable and affordable. ULSAC began as a concept development program, producing lightweight designs for doors, hoods, decklids and hatches that are up to 32% lighter than the average benchmark.


Society of Manufacturing Engineers

Taylan Altan, PhD, FSME
Professor and Director
Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing
The Ohio State University
Columbus, OH

Center for Precision Forming

Center For Precision forming - Is this a real organization doing things or is it strictly wannabe?


NextEngine Home

This scanner supposedly scans directly into SolidWorks


Stampack is a european product for sheet metal forming analysis


I believe this can be used to analyze the forming process and if necessary, modify the die design to achieve the desired part shape.




ASP Publications Database

ASP Publications Database

steeluniversity.org | Formability | Circle Grid Analysis

steeluniversity.org Formability Circle Grid Analysis

This is a tutorial on circle grid analysis.

ThyssenKrupp Steel NA Inc.

ThyssenKrupp Steel NA Inc.

IRDI circle grid analysis

This is a course offered on circle grid analysis. There seems to be a lot of information just in the course outline.

The Tinbasher Sheet Metal Blog

The Tinbasher Sheet Metal Blog

FTI:Sheet Metal Components Design,Formability and Costing.Stamping and Welding Courses Toronto

FTI:Sheet Metal Components Design,Formability and Costing.Stamping and Welding Courses Toronto: "Surface Stretch Analysis"

This course seems to answer many of the questions I have about performing circle grid analysis.

Fraunhofer IWU - Department of Forming Technology

Fraunhofer IWU - Department of Forming Technology

A german university conducting research in sheet metal forming

Irvan-Smith Inc. - Racing and Fabrication Equipment and Supplies

Irvan-Smith Inc. - Racing and Fabrication Equipment and Supplies

This company sells sheet metal working tools. You can also download their catalog in .pdf.


This is one area in which older vehicles do not match modern, energy absorption.



Center for Precision Forming (CPF)

Status of CPF (members / projects)

(update – November, 2006)

The following companies already joined (or in the process of joining) CPF:

· Daimler Chrysler

· Elkay Manufacturing

· ESI North America

· General Motors

· Interlaken

· Posco (Korea)

· Scientific Forming Technologies, Corp (SFTC)

· Sung Woo Hitech (Korea)

· Timken

· Weatherford

· Whirlpool

Many others (who attended our planning meeting or who could not be present at the first IAB meeting) are evaluating membership with their management. We are inviting additional companies to explore membership in CPF.

Based on our initial budget and the initial interest from member companies, we have started working on the following projects:

1.1 Elevated temperature stamping and hydroforming (material, lubrication, tooling) of Al, Mg and Stainless Steel

This project was originally focused on warm forming of Al and Mg alloys and Stainless Steels. However, we will also spend some effort on warm forming of boron steels (since there is considerable interest on this last topic, from steel and automotive companies).

1.2 Opportunities for Impulse Methods in Sheet Metal Fabrication

1.3 Investigation of formability springback and quality issues in forming of Advanced / Ultra High Strength Steel (A/UHSS) components.

This project will focus on material characterization, formability and strongly on spring back issues, i.e. how can we predict spring back more accurately in FEM simulations.

2.1 Determination of room temperature properties (flow stress, formability, anisotropy) of Al and Steel sheet materials under biaxial conditions.

This project, will focus on steels and Al alloys at room temperature

2.2 Determination of flow stress of Al and Mg sheet materials from bulge test at elevated temperatures

This project will focus on Al & Mg alloys at elevated temperatures (150-300 C)

2.3 Investigation of friction conditions in forming uncoated and galvanized A/UHSS.

This project will be focused on (a) evaluating and developing new lubricants and additives (and friction) and (b) galling and tool wear (how to reduce it).

2.4 Development of die wear testing method and apparatus for cold and warm forming of light weight materials.

3.2 Design and manufacturing of nano scale porous surface structures.

3.3 Process Development for robust fuel cell bi-polar and interconnect plate fabrication.

4.1 Optimum practical use of Multi Point Control (MPC) die cushion technology in stamping.

This project will develop, for a given part, an automated system to a) predict the necessary number and location of cushion pins and b) adjust the force on each pin using a flange imaging system for feed back.

4.2.a Tube Hydroforming (THF) - Advanced features and applications (tube quality, lubrication, simulation)

This project will utilize past R&D experience that is available at OSU and will assist interested companies in (a) the evaluation of tube quality and properties to reduce scrap, (b) the evaluation of lubricants and (c) FEM simulation of the THF process.

4.2.b Sheet Hydroforming (SHF) – Advanced features and applications (punch/die design, blank holder pressure, pot pressure)

This project uses past experience of OSU’s team and focuses on design issues: (a) influence of punch – die clearance, (b) guidelines for die / punch design and c) estimation of optimum blank holder pressure and pot pressure in function of punch stroke.

In summary:

a) Projects 1.1, 1.3, 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 4.1, 4.2a and 4.2b have already started. We have issued our second bimonthly reports in September, 2006.

b) Projects 1.2, 3.2, and 3.3 will be started after interested companies formally join CPF.

Project Plans and Bimonthly Reports (#1 and #2) are available in “Members” only section that can be accessed by user name and password, available only to our members.

CPF (Center for Precision Forming) - Showroom on thefabricator.com

CPF (Center for Precision Forming) - Showroom on thefabricator.com

Canada Research Chairs - Chairholders

Canada Research Chairs - Chairholders
This site does not mention the types of metal forming simulation software used.

NUMISHEET2005 - Detroit-US, August 15-19, 2005

This is a lot of information about forming sheet metal. Does anyone actually understand all this?

Media - Magna News - Magna News - Magna International Inc.

This facility in Bowling Green Ohio makes large size body stampings. To whom are they selling?

Open Directory - Business: Automotive: Kit Cars and Replicas

Open Directory - Business: Automotive: Kit Cars and Replicas

It would be interesting to see which of these cars are made of metal.


Vehicle Body Hand Forming Class

From: Wray Schelin [mailto:wesparts@charter.net]


I have been receiving your newsletter for some time now and I have enjoyed the information. Thanks! I see that you are interested in low production methods of sheet metal shaping. I wonder if you would consider attending or know someone else who would like to attend my sheet metal shaping class. I have a very novel approach to hand forming sheet metal that is very easy to learn. The quality of the panels produced in my class are of the highest quality possible. See my email flyer below.

Here is the link to my Ebay ad for my classes. Check it out and see some of the pictures of projects that have been made.


In addition to my regular classes I will soon be annoucing a new type of class where the student can make a whole car ( multiple classes will be required) body and keep his work

I also will be offering soon a complete line of state of the art
sheet metal shaping tools.


Wray Schelin 508-347-7749

I offer sheetmetal shaping classes at least once a
month for up to four attendees at $325.00 tuition per day,
per person. The class is 12 hours per day (9:00AM -12:30PM,
1:00PM to 5:00PM, 6:30PM to 12:00 AM, (earlier quiting time if 
you get tired). You can attend only one day, two, or all three
days, your choice. Lunch, soda, bottled water, and materials 
used (aluminum and steel sheet,and abrasives) during the class 
are included.
To insure a spot, a deposit of $325.00 is required.  
My shop is heated and air-condioned.
The next class will be December 8th, 9th, and 10th. The January
2007 dates are the 12th, 13th, and the 14th.The February 2007
class dates are the 9th, 10th, and 11th. Please let me know
which dates are best for you and I'll try to accommodate your
needs for classes or one-on-one instruction.
In addition to the group class, I also offer one-on-one 
instruction while working exclusively on your panel or 
project (fender-sized or less) that you bring or ship in. 
Cost for this hands-on instruction and service is $500.00 
per day for a twelve-hour working day, $400.00 for an 
eight-hour working day.  Materials used, steel or 
aluminum sheet,lunch, soda,and bottled water are included
(dates are open to the needs of the attendee).
Here is the description of what you can expect to learn at 
my group sheetmetal shaping class and at my one-on-one panel
/project service:
It doesn't matter if you are a novice or have been shaping
sheetmetal for some time, in both cases I can help you 
learn new skills quickly. I teach in a very easy to 
understand manner using many illustrations and actual examples. 
I can show you how to get results that are equal to any of 
the best sheetmetal shapers practicing today.
You will have a chance to use any piece of equipment in my
shop so you will experience the full spectrum of the 
different methods possible to get the same results, plus learn
a lot about how each machine works. This will help you make 
the right decisions when considering purchasing equipment. 
This can save you from spending thousands of dollars on 
equipment that is not needed or poorly made.
You can bring a project for you to work on with my guidance,
as long as it is fender-sized or less. You can ship your 
project in via UPS beforehand if it is too large to bring 
in person. Often times the value of the work completed on 
projects exceeds the cost of the class.
I encourage all that attend to make sure they bring a notebook
and a camera so they can record the most important rules 
about working sheetmetal which are revealed during the class.  
On day one I explain all of the theory needed to super 
accurately shape sheetmetal, demonstrate the many techniques, 
and show how the tools are used.
On day two and three you put all that you learned from the 
first day to work building a project.  I will guide you 
through all of the techniques, show you how to correct errors
and show how the same results and quality can be achieved by 
using different methods and tools. What you will learn will
exceed your expectations! I will also focus on any aspect of
the craft that you feel you need more help with.
Over the course of the three days ( 36 hours total shop time )
I cover the following:
How to understand what a shape is in sheetmetal and how to 
break it down into pieces you can make on the equipment/tools 
that you own.
How to weld panels together so that you can achieve a 
super-smooth, bondo-free surface. Correct methods of tig 
welding, mig welding, and gas welding will be covered.
Use of the English wheel, air planishing hammer, and
helve power hammer. 
Hand shaping methods including use of a post dolly,
slappers, mallets, and various hammers.
How to shrink sheetmetal properly when using a helve power 
hammer, Erco kick shrinker, and also hand tuck shrinking with 
tucking tools. Results will be compared between each method.
How to planish sheetmetal using an air planishing hammer, 
English wheel, helve hammer, and on a post dolly.
How to properly stretch and shrink sheetmetal without damaging 
the metal.
How to make flexible shape patterns and how to use them.
How to add details and features on panels like beads,
wired edges,hemmed edges, flanged edges, and reveal lines.
The different types of bucks and how to make and use them.
How to make a patch panel and weld it in.
How to properly remove dents.
How to use a shrinking disc.
How to do superb work with just a minimum of tools!
Please e-mail me back if you would like to attend.
Check out my Pro Shaper Tools and Videos Ebay store .
Also check out the pictures of past classes that I have posted
in my Ebay ad for my classes.
Wray Schelin   
I have over 40 years total collector car restoration experience
having restored some of the finest 1930s vintage collector cars
including Mercedes, Packards, Duesenburgs, Rolls Royce, Auburn, 
Stutz and others. 
The last 18 plus years I have been hand shaping and fabricating
replacement XK 120,140,and 150 Jaguar replacement panels and 
marketing them to collectors throughout the US and Canada.
I hope to soon embark on a new career of designing high end 
modern furniture, sculpture, and decorative household items, 
making them primarily with bronze, copper, brass, aluminum, 
and stainless sheetmetal, using traditional hand shaping and 
fabrication methods coupled with CNC methods and solid 
modeling CAD.
I'm also going to start to offer for sale this year a full line
of sheetmetal shaping equipment that will be innnovative and 
cutting edge in design.
Accommodations and travel information:
My town has at least 15 motels (Sturbridge is a tourist town) 
so accommodations are not a problem. Room rates range from 
a low of $42.00 for the smaller motels to a high end of $150.00 per night.  
This site will be helpful:  http://www.sturbridge.org/
Summer rates are now in effect so lodging rates will be higher
than the winter rates.
A lot of my students have been staying at these inexpensive 
motels which are about 3 miles from my house/shop :
 Rodeway Inn 
172 Main Street, Route 131
P.O. Box 849
Sturbridge, MA 01566
(508) 347-9673 
Scottish Inns
140 Main Street, Route 131
Sturbridge, MA 01566
(508) 347-9514 
Fax: (508) 347-9337
Email: mailto:Patel142@charter.net
Also check out  http://www.roomsaver.com     they offer coupons for
motel rooms. You will need to fill in "Massachusetts" and "Sturbridge"
on their drop down menu. Currently they have coupons for 9 different
Sturbridge motels starting from as low as $40.00 per night.
My address:
Wray Schelin
189 Fiske Hill Rd.
Sturbridge, MA 01566      Phone: 508-347-7749
The closest airport and the best airport to use by far is: 
Bradley International (which is the airport for Hartford, 
Connecticut) it's about 40 minutes away from my shop and 
it's all interstate highway driving.   
Boston's Logan Airport is about 80 minutes away.   




Jim Peck 248-765-4273

Avocational interests:
Reproduction Vehicle Body Manufacturing

Vehicle Body Design and Reverse Engineering

Job Skill Testing

Computer Based Learning
Expert Systems

Testing Based Certifications and Licensing



Metal Meet Forums - Powered by vBulletin

Metal Meet Forums is for metalworking hobbyists including those who shape sheet metal into autobody parts by hand.

Die Making Testing

We have discussed using testing to find out what you do not know.

Circle Grid Analysis

Some years ago the ASM (American Society for Metals) used to offer a mail type correspondence course on metal forming. That is a thing of the past, I believe. I wonder is this videotape is left over from the era when the ASM was in that business.

I would be interested in hearing from people who have seen this product.

Circle Grid Analysis

Circle Grid Analysis

Product# ASMVCG
Price: $185.00
FMA/TPA Member Price: $145.00

Top of Form


Circle Grid Analysis

Bottom of Form


This 56-minute videotape focuses on the form limit diagram and shape analysis via the stretch-draw chart. Viewers also learn how to distinguish between tooling and design problems and how to select the optimum lubricant by using coefficient of friction test data. This course also covers making a material edge condition analysis.


Jim Peck



http://forums.sme.org/forumdisplay.php?f=79 SME Sheet Metal Stamping Forum

http://autobodymfg.blogspot.com/ Jim Peck blog re automobile sheet metal forming

http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/StampConfidently-withRMS/ Stamping Group

FMA Store: Sheet Metal Stamping Presses

FMA Store: Sheet Metal Stamping Presses

Vehicle Design at Macomb Community College

Macomb Community College is relatively close to GM's Technical Center in Warren, Michigan. Macomb Community College has long had a program in Vehicle Design. Before being called vehicle Design, it was called Body Drafting. Used to be that graduates of this program went to work for GM.

Non-ferrous stamping dies.

This article was published in the Fabricator in the past. It mentions making stamping dies of materials other than ferrous metals. Does anyone have any actual examples of such?


Jim Peck



http://forums.sme.org/forumdisplay.php?f=79 SME Sheet Metal Stamping Forum

http://autobodymfg.blogspot.com/ Jim Peck blog re automobile sheet metal forming

http://finance.groups.yahoo.com/group/StampConfidently-withRMS/ Stamping Group


Model T Reverse Engineering

I have comments about this article.

  1. It is encouraging to see the creation of solid models of special interest vehicles. I would love to see the 56 Ford F100 recreated similarly.
  2. The students have drawn no stamped steel body parts so far. The representation of sheet metal body parts with compound curves is something taught in the Vehicle Design courses at Macomb Community College. I wonder if and when they get to that phase.
  3. I would imagine a number of the body parts are larger than can be produced on the rapid prototyping machine.
  4. HFCC or the Model T Heritage complex may have some funding for this project.


Warren Students Apply New Techniques to Old Car by Kyle Lohmeier, Staff Reporter

While the most modern technologies are applied to automotive design and manufacturing today, the automobile is not a new invention - a fact that’s been made remarkably clear to a handful of advanced drafting students in Richard Ranks’ drafting class at Lincoln High School in Warren, who have been drawing three-dimensional parts for the original Ford Model T using state-of-the-art techniques and parametric drafting software.

The program, sponsored by Henry Ford Community College and the Model T Automotive Heritage Complex, makes copies of Model T parts drawings available to area schools with the aim of eventually assembling a complete “virtual” Model T. “What the shop needs is front, top and right-side drawings for manufacturing. In para­metric, you design the part in 3D from the beginning, it’s flex­ible, you can make changes as you go in the sizes,” Ranks said, adding that the software will then create a two-dimensional drawing based on the three-di­mensional part. “It generates a 3D model ... They’re using state-of the-art techniques.”

The fully rendered three-di­mensional model created by the parametric software can then be used as the basis for a physical model part made via a stereo-lithography machine at the Warren Consolidated School District’s Career Tech Prep Center.

“I just e-mail him (teacher Jim Mandel) the parts, we e­mail the files to him, he puts them in the machine and a few hours later the part pops out a solid part,” Ranks said. “And that’s good for the students to be able to see that.”

So far, Ranks’ students have had prototype parts made of the crankshaft and reverse pedal of a Model T, based on their three-dimensional drawings which were based upon original blueprints nearly a century old in some cases. Creating parts using modern techniques from comparatively ancient automotive blueprints — there are few older in the industry — can be a bit daunting at times. For example, Ranks said the measurements are noted predominantly in fractions, not the decimal-places computers prefer. Fortunately, the teacher was able to enlist some expert help.

“We have the original prints from the Ford archives we’re working off of. When we run into the problem with the prints, because they’re all hand-drawn ... the guy from Motor City Antique Auto Supply, Sam Cipriano, he loans us the parts so the kids can see the actual parts.”

Presently, Ranks’ five third-year drafting students are working on drawings of a piston, connecting rod, rod cap and the various bolts and fasteners associated with those parts.

While pistons and crank-shafts have certainly evolved in the past century, Ranks said they’re more similar to Ford’s century-old components than not.

“They’re pretty much the same basic parts, although things are more engineered today I’d say,” Ranks said.

Emailing: EMAS_Vision

Electromagnetically Assisted Stamping —
A Vision of a Future for Metal Forming


Over the past several years it has become clear that metals can be stretched to much higher strains at high velocity versus conventional quasi-static stretching. We refer to this extended ductility in high velocity conditions as hyperplasticity. We have worked in both understanding formability in a fundamental way and applying this to practical sheet metal forming. One of the most attractive ways of developing high velocity metal forming is with electromagnetic forming. Electromagnetic forming actuators can be fabricated into a wide variety of configurations and used in conjunction with stamping operations. We believe the end result of this vision will be that many sheet metal components will be able to be fabricated with a smaller number of operations (i.e., less expensive) and that it will enable the fabrication of many components from difficult materials such as aluminum. This ultimately leads to lighter weight and more cost effective land and aerospace vehicles.

How does electromagnetic forming work?

Electromagnetic forming is based on something called the Lorentz force. Basically whenever an electrical current is rapidly imposed within an electrical conductor, it will develop a magnetic field. This change in magnetic field will induce eddy currents in any nearby conductor that generally run in a direction opposite to the primary current (like in a transformer). These eddy currents develop their own magnetic field and cause a mutual repulsion between the workpiece and actuator. This technique is quite general and is suitable for any workpiece made from a good conductor provided the current pulse is of a sufficiently high frequency. These basics are well described in Moon’s book.

The spatial distribution of pressure can be controlled by the configuration of the actuator and the overall force magnitude is largely controlled by the discharge energy.

Has electromagnetic metal forming been used before?

There is a long history in the use of both high velocity forming in general (often developed by explosives) and electromagnetic forming in specific. Hundreds of capacitor banks have been manufactured and sold by Maxwell Magneform. These have been used since the 1960’s to fabricate millions of parts without operator injury. The overwhelming majority of operations that have been carried out in the past involve simple axisymmetric compression or expansion. These operations have usually been used as part of an assembly operation. Improvements in formability and suppression of wrinkling have received scant attention in the older literature. Several reviews of research performed in the heyday of high velocity forming have been written [see ASTME, Austin & Davies].

What are the fundamental benefits of high velocity forming?

Formability is improved. We have observed over 100% plane strain elongation in aluminum subjected to a single room temperature high velocity forming event. A full understanding of high velocity formability is still not available, but it appears one primary reason is a resistance to sheet metal necking that is developed by inertia. These issues are discussed at the web site and 1-D FEM partially explains this [see Hu and Daehn].

Impact has benefits. When sheet metal strikes a tool at high velocity large compressive impact stresses are developed. These coin the sheet into the die surface. This can reduce springback, improve surface finish and enhance formability.

Wrinkling is suppressed. When a sheet is launched with a particular velocity profile, each part of the sheet would like to travel along its launch path. Wrinkling usually necessitates a change in direction. Thus at high velocity wrinkling is inhibited my material momentum. As an example, one can reduce the diameter of slender rings with an electromagnetic impulse by a 2:1 ratio or more.

Can electromagnetic forming be carried out with traditional stamping?

Yes. In principle this is straightforward. Electromagnetic actuators can either be pulsed while the tool punch is advancing. Or a single impulse can be delivered at the bottom of the press stroke. Several actuators might be independently controlled in one press stand.

Concept for a press with several electromagnetic actuators

What issues can Electromagnetically Assisted Stamping Address?

Improved Formability — Forming limits can be significantly increased at high velocity.

Improved strain distribution — In addition to improved formability, the freedom afforded by electromagnetically assisted stamping allows modification of strain distributions. For example small pulses can produce strain in an area that might otherwise be locked out by friction.

Reduction in wrinkling — This has several advantages, for example it greatly widens the window of operation for shrink flanging.

Active control of springback — The use of small pulses at the bottom of a press stroke can be used to ‘tune’ springback behavior to accommodate for differences in material.

Distortions at local features are minimized — The high contact pressures and high velocities associated with electromagnetic forming can minimize the distortions that are typical with restrike operations.

Local coining — When a driven sheet hits a die, impact pressures are high enough that coining, embossing and hitting corners to minimize springback are possible.

Has this approach been demonstrated to be effective on automotive parts?

To a limited extent. We have collaborated with the USAMP materials forming team and examined how an electromagnetic forming operation combined with a softened initial shape could enable the fabrication of a one-piece aluminum door inner. A pre-form with softened corners was first formed by Milford Fabricating, then this was electromagnetically re-formed into a GM Cavalier door inner die. The electromagnetic operation took the corner back to its design radius. This part could not be formed by traditional means with aluminum.

A demonstration of the ability to add character lines without distortion and/or wrinkling was also carried out with full-size aluminum hood.

The Electromagnetic re-forming process carried out on the hinge face of an aluminum door inner. The photographs show a softened initial shape that is electromagnetically reformed to very near the original product shape.

Are numerical simulations of electromagnetic forming possible?

There are some special problems related to solving for motion, plasticity and electromagnetic coupling all at once. The Lawrence Livermore National Lab code, CALE has been shown effective for 2-D problems of this type [Fenton]. Doug Everhart’s Multi-Physics Analysis Code (MAC) has also been shown to show considerable promise for 3-D problems. The correspondence between an experiment and a similar MAC simulation of a simple clamped aluminum sheet with an actuator utilizing a primary central current is shown below

Is this technology advanced enough for use today?

Yes and no. Electromagnetic forming is already used extensively for assembly operations. For operations where relatively small amounts of energy are to be used (such as for incremental forming to alter strain distributions, and active springback control), robust systems could be developed fairly easily. In order to do operations like the door inner shown above in a routine, robust manner without extensive trial and error in design further development is needed. Some of the areas that need development are:

Coil design and durability — There is relatively little experience with the kinds of relatively flat coils that might be used in dies. Best construction practices and durability as a function of use parameters need to be established.

Modeling — Further development and validation of simulation tools such as those mentioned above needs to go further. Such codes will be useful in understanding the electrical and mechanical stresses in coils and will allow the design of coils that give pressure distributions that are required to form a given component.

Material Behavior — Both forming limits and flow behavior of materials under the kinds of conditions seen in electromagnetic forming are poorly understood. These are required in the quantitative design of forming processes.

Process design — We need to develop a framework regarding how to decide how to form a part using electromagnetically augmented stamping. What should the stamped shape look like before electromagnetic forming, for example?

Experience — We need to crawl before we run. We will gain new insight into how to use this approach with each study, trial and production system development.

What facilities and activities exist at Ohio State?

In addition to the usual equipment for the examination of materials properties and structure, the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Ohio State has two Maxwell Magneform Capacitor banks (16 kJ and 48 kJ) as well as a variety of dies, oscilloscopes and high speed video equipment.

Areas of research emphasis include: high velocity and strain rate formability, electromagnetic forming process development, validation of numerical simulations, and education and dissemination of knowledge about the practice and theory of electromagnetic metal forming.

Why should this vision of electromagnetic forming be pursued?

Sheet aluminum offers many powerful advantages to automakers, but it is also notoriously difficult to form. The development of electromagnetically assisted stamping should make aluminum easier and less expensive to form while affording significantly greater flexibility to automotive designers.


This work is largely sponsored by the National Science Foundation, Division of Design Manufacture and Industrial Innovation and the Center for Advanced Materials and Manufacturing of Automotive Components (CAMMAC) at Ohio State. The J-Car Door demonstration was financed by the USAMP Materials Forming Team, and Larry DuBois of GM was active in all phases of that work. Also, The students and post-docs in the high velocity foming group are the ones who have actually performed the research. Particularly important with respect to the work described here are, V. J. Vohnout, A. Tamhane, S. Datta, H. Panshikar, G. Fenton, M. Padmanabhan and V.S. Balanethiram.

F.C. Moon, Magneto-Solid Mechanics, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1984.

High Velocity Forming of Metals, Revised Edition, E.L. Bruno, ed., ASTME, 1968

R. Davies and E. R. Austin, Developments in High Speed Metal Forming, Industrial Press, New York, 1970.

X. Hu and G.S. Daehn, Acta Mater., 44, pp 1021-33, 1996.

G. K Fenton and G. S. Daehn, J. Mater. Proc. Tech., 75, 6-16 (1998).

Copyright, Glenn S. Daehn, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The Ohio State University, 1999. Prepared 10/1999